From the book America, A Narrative History, Volume 1, 8th Edition, by George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi PAGE 17 GOING ONTO 18 "By 1492 the map of western Europe Showed several united kingdoms: France, where in 1453 Charles VII had emerged from the Hundred Years' War as head of a unified nation; England, where in 1485 Henry VII had emerged victorious after thirty years of civil strife known as the War of the Roses; Portugal, where John I had fought off the Castilians to ensure national independence; and Spain, where in 1469 Ferdinand of ARAGON and ISABELLA of Castile had ended an era of chronic civil war when they united two great kingdoms in marriage. The Spanish king and queen were crusading expansionists." GET OUT OF MY TEXT BOOK! OUT OUT OUT! ISABELLA, STOP GLOWING ALL OVER THE PAGE! ARAGON..... WHY ARE YOU A PLACE?!